Plush what kind of fabric and material, properties, types
Plush fabric is a fabric that imitates a fur surface with a pile height from 4 to 18mm. Soft and pleasant to the touch, plush has been popular for a long time. In the 19th century, beautiful and durable tablecloths, curtains, children's toys were sewn from it, furniture was upholstered.
History and technology of plush fabric production
Plush began to be produced in 1903 in the USA. Already at that time, new materials were actively developed, as in connection with global industrialization and rising incomes, the demand for everyone's favorite Teddy Bear toy increased. It was made from natural bear fur and the question arose of replacing such an expensive material with a safe and at the same time affordable one. The base of the plush was made exclusively from cotton fiber, and the pile could be different - from wool, cotton, viscose, silk. The fabric turned out to be very similar to real fur, but cheaper and its properties could be changed at your discretion.
Fabrics with a pile weave have on their surface a pile formed from cut fibers (split pile) or from thread loops (loop pile). Pile, in turn, can be obtained by cutting weft threads (weft nap fabrics) or warp threads (warp nap fabrics). Looped pile The pile of plush is smoothed to one side, in contrast to velvet, this is achieved by a special treatment.
Plush fabric properties:
- soft, very comfortable and pleasant to the touch, no matter what fibers it is made of, natural or synthetic;
- hypoallergenic if made of polyester or acrylic;
- beautiful to look at;
- retains heat well and allows air to pass through;
- does not last, the exceptions are Minky and Velboa plush;
Types of plush
The composition of the fabric is distinguished:
- natural: from cotton, wool, viscose, bamboo, tencel and silk;
- synthetic: acrylic, polyester, nylon, polyester;
- blended: partly from natural fibers, most often from them the base and synthetic materials are made, from which the villi are formed.
Externally and to the touch, plush from various materials is difficult to distinguish, since modern industry imitates natural materials very reliably.
Is plush a natural material? It can be natural, or maybe synthetic, it all depends on the composition. Therefore, to determine naturalness, you need to familiarize yourself with the characteristics of the product in the online store or on the tag in its natural form.
Plush types of painting technology:
- bleached, pure white fabric;
- plain dyed, dyed in a single color over the entire area of the fabric;
- printed, the pattern is applied directly from above to the pile for the entire length;
Varieties of plush on the pile:
- for decorative finishing
- smooth, usually with a height of 8 to 15 mm with a uniform structure;
- embossed, thanks to the pile of various lengths, various effects of the texture of the fabric are achieved;
- shaped, when the fabric itself is pulled out under the influence of temperature and special equipment, allowing you to get bizarre patterns;
- embossed, the pile fits in certain directions, creating the specified design delights.
Minky plush is just a kind of shaped plush, which allows you to get a fabric that is very soft, light and pleasant to the touch, as well as safe for babies. The pile height is one of the smallest - no more than 5-7mm. Baby blankets, envelopes for discharge, light blankets are made from it. Minky plush has a very soft and pleasant pile structure, because it undergoes a special technological treatment. It is absolutely safe for children, does not cause allergies, because it is made exclusively from high quality 100% polyester. It also absorbs moisture, which is necessary for the comfort of babies and is easy to care for.
It can be either smooth or with fancy patterns. A variety of Minky plush is Shar Pei plush or it is also called stripe because of its striped structure.
Plush velor is also a kind of regular plush with a separate subcategory. Differs in low pile, softness and variety of textures.
Plush velor fabric composition can be either natural - from cotton fibers, viscose or wool, less often from silk due to its high cost.
The fabric with embossing looks very beautiful, creating unique volumetric patterns, is durable, the pile remains for a long time in its original not crumpled form.
Plush velboa or velba for short is a type of plush with an average hair height of 4-6mm, a dense and uniform one-sided structure. It stretches well in length, which is valuable when used as a fabric in hand-made toys and various crafts. Versatile in use - can be used when sewing home textiles, clothing and accessories. Possesses high wear resistance, retains its color and shape for a long time with proper care. There are highlighter finishes that provide extra shine and shine to the outside.the one that adds decorativeness.
by the location of the pile:
- one-sided, the pile is located on one front side;
- double-sided plush, the villi are located on both sides in a different way, sometimes the front side is less dense than the wrong side;
plush fabric is categorized by density
Density can be achieved by various methods, the density of the pile, its length, as well as the location on one or two sides. The materials used in the manufacture of plush also play a role in this indicator. Cotton products weigh much heavier than viscose and, of course, polyester products are much lighter than natural ones.
- the least dense plush, indicators start from 120gr / m2, the lightest kind;
- average indicators from 200 to 280 g / m2, average indicators of protection from cold, but also does not differ in high weight, being the golden mean between these indicators;
- the most dense and therefore the most durable fabric, as a rule, is used for upholstery of furniture or heavy stage curtains, density indicators from 290 to 400gr / m2;
Plush fabric and yarn applications:
It is used when sewing home textiles: bedspreads, blankets, light blankets, curtains of various textures and colors allow you to create an atmosphere of warmth and comfort, because plush fills the space of a room with charm by its appearance. And the right tones and finishes can play different roles from companion to main accent.
As a fabric for sewing home clothes, both for children and adults, slippers, various accessories such as mitts, bags, slippers. Such clothes are very pleasant to the touch, do not cause allergies, are durable and very aesthetic. They also sew outerwear - sheepskin coats, fur coats.
Plush is used to sew baby blankets, blankets and hospital discharge envelopes. It is convenient to wrap a baby in a plush blanket, it will reliably protect from the cold and will not cause irritation. The soft plush texture is suitable for babies from birth, does not cause allergies, and drapes comfortably.
Plush yarn has the same properties as fabric, only with the help of it it is possible to create voluminous products that are distinguished by a beautiful extraordinary appearance and good thermal insulation properties. Plush yarn is quite thick and it is necessary to knit from it on special equipment or by hand, as well as with thick knitting needles.
Plush care methods
- it is necessary to carefully read the manufacturer's recommendations, because depending on the production technology and raw materials, the types of care can vary significantly;
- dry cleaning or dry cleaning is preferred;
- for some types, it is allowed to wash in a machine in a delicate mode at a temperature not higher than 35 degrees;
- it is necessary to wash with liquid products, they wash better and do not leave streaks;
- you can only squeeze it slightly with your hands so as not to spoil the force;
- it is also possible to iron some types using vertical steaming;
- it is necessary to dry away from heating devices and open sunlight.